Torsion Control Index (TCI): measurement of midfoot shoe stability, in inch-pound units (in.-lbs.). TCI is measured through actively twisting a shoe around the longitudinal axis of the shoe, from the heel to the area of the toes joints, simulating rotational forces of the foot, and measuring the shoe’s resistance to this motion.
Vertical Compression Index (VCI): measurement of hindfoot shoe stability, in millimeters (mm). VCI is measured through compression of the heel portion of the shoe under a fixed amount of pressure, thereby measuring how the structure of the shoe controls rearfoot motion.
Rebound Index (RI): indicator of energy return of shoe to the foot, in millimeters (mm). RI is measured through compression of the heel portion of the shoe under a fixed amount of pressure, and then determining how much force the shoe exerts on the foot.
Shoe Stability Index (SSI):
indicator of shoe stability, as an index. SSI is derived through mathematically combining the quantified measurements of midfoot stability (TCI) and hindfoot stability (VCI), indicating the shoe’s overall ability to control the motion of the foot.

Patello-Femoral Syndrome

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Complaints

  • Generalized pain around the patella (knee cap)
  • Tenderness around the patella
  • Increased knee pain with running and walking activities

Possible Causes

  • Muscular imbalance in the quadriceps
  • Excessive pronation
  • Soft, unstable shoes

Shoe Profile

For moderate to excessive pronators, the long axis of the shoe should provide maximum torsional control of medial foot rotation (pronation) during the weight bearing phase of the gait cycle. Proper support provides better alignment for the patella and allows the quadriceps to function more efficiently.

Orthotics

Neutral (mild pronators) – Over-the-counter arch supports may be beneficial
Moderate to excessive pronators – Custom orthotics

Shoe Recommendations

The following shoes meet these criteria. Please click on the appropriate link to see the shoes and their test data.

personal_male_2 personal_female_2

Exercises

**Please consult your physican before engaging in an exercise program.**

With all strengthening exercises, start with 3 sets of 10 repetitions. If you experience any sort of pain reduce your reps to 3 sets of 5. For all stretches, repeat 3 times holding each stretch for 30 seconds to 1 minute. Using RICE (Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation) can be beneficial in the treatment of injuries as well.

Standing Hamstring Stretch
Standing IT Band Stretch
  1. Stand facing a chair and place heel of foot of leg to be stretched on seat of chair.
  2. Keep knee and trunk straight throughout exercise.
  3. Lean trunk forward, bending at hips and hold.
  4. Return to the starting position, relax and repeat.
  1. Stand in a spacious area with room to bend to the side.
  2. Cross the leg to be stretched behind the other leg.
  3. Tip trunk to the opposite side of the leg to be stretched and reach towards the floor with both hands and hold.
  4. Return to the starting position, relax and repeat.
Standing Quadriceps Stretch
Leg Forward Elastic Exercise
  1. Stand facing stable object, i.e. chair, used for balancing.
  2. Bend knee and grasp top of foot with hand.
  3. Pull up on foot bringing heel toward buttock, push knee back behind hip if possible and hold.
  4. Return to starting position, relax, and repeat.
  1. Attach elastic (Theraband) at ankle level and stand facing away from attachment with elastic looped around leg at ankle.
  2. Pick up slack by stepping away from attachment.
  3. Stand with erect posture and and keep trunk stable during exercise.
  4. Pull forward with leg against elastic
  5. Slowly return to starting position and repeat.
Leg In Elastic Exercise
Standing Squats Elastic Exercise
  1. Attach elastic (Theraband) at ankle level and stand with attachment to side with elastic looped around the leg at ankle.
  2. Pick up slack by stepping away from attachment.
  3. Stand with erect posture and keep trunk stable during exercise.
  4. Pull in with leg against elastic.
  5. Slowly return to starting position and repeat.
  1. Stand on both legs, feet shoulder with apart, and elastic (Theraband) looped under both feet.
  2. Squat down and grasp elastic in both hands.
  3. Keep good erect position of spine throughout exercise.
  4. Straighten knees pulling up against elastic and move to a standing position.
  5. Slowly return to a squat position and repeat.
Unilateral Standing Squats Elastic Exercise
  1. Stand behind chair for balance, loop elastic under foot and grasp elastic in hand.
  2. Bend UNINVOLVED knee so standing on one leg.
  3. Balancing against back of chair or wall, bend knee and squat keeping good erect position of the spine.
  4. Push up against the elastic by straightening the knee.
  5. Slowly return to squatting position and repeat.

Images reproduced courtesy of T.E.D.© (Therapeutic Exercise Database) V. 2.0